民族地区开展人民陪审员双语培训教育的思考(壮文版)

发表时间:2018-12-28 11:45  责任编辑:广西民语委  点击:次  来源:中国社会科学网

 Gij Naemjloh Youq Dieg Minzcuz Guh Song Vahsaw 

  Beizyin Son’gyauq Bouxbuenxsaemj Yinzminz 

  (民族地区开展人民陪审员双语培训教育的思考) 

  Genjgangj Coenzvah doxdoeng dwg gaiqmoizfaplwg gauqsaehfaplwd aeu coenzvah gangj cinjdeng hableix bae guhbaenz dawzfap doxhuz caeuq goengcingq. Dieg minzcuz deng vwnz-vafungsug sibgvenq doenghgij neix yingjyangjyouq mwh dawzfap gauqsaeh miz gij yiengh-saeh deng coenzvah hanhhaed bouxbuenxsaemj guh gauqsaeh neix. Gak gaep fazyen aeu fap-guek guh gyangsimaeu dawzfap bang beksingq guh gizhwnjdin caeuq gizdaengxdinyouq sevei laebhwnj caezcienz doih vunz bouxbuenxsaemj rox yungh song vahsaw”, caencingq mbouj hawj coenzvah gazngaih faplwd gauqsaehhawj de ndaej baenz gij beksingq rox bek-singq yunghbaujcang gijgienzleih gauqsaeh gyoengq vunzlai dieg minzcuz. Faenzcieng daj sam fuengmienh bae lwnhgangj gij beizyin songyauq song vahsaw youq mwh buenxsaemj miz yungh dangqmaz. Gveihfan songyauq song vahsawhawj vah dawzfap ndaej dak dawzfap goengcingqbaengh goengrengz gyoengq bouxcanghcaiz ndaw minzcuz yenyau caeuq yenzgiu gihgoulaebhwnj beizyin gihgouhawj gyoengqde lai miz aensim gag gungganq gag son-gyauqhawj bouxbuenxsaemj guhbaenz bouxdazyinx yungh vah minzcuzboux ciepswnj yungh vah minzcuz dawzfap gauqsaehcijmiz yienghneix cijndaej langhok gij saehndei simndei fugsaeh minzcuz.  

  Swz haedfaenz Beizyin song vahsawdawzfap goengcingqdawzfap minzcujrox yungh song vahsaw 

  Cunghgung Cunghyangh Aen Gietdingh Gven daengz Cienzmienh Doicaenh Ciuqfap Guenj Guek Haujlai Aen Vwndiz Hungnaek》(lajneix genjdanh heuhguh Gietdingh》) youz Cibbet Gaiq Seiq Cungh Daengx Hoih saemjlwnh doenggvaq neixdwg doiq aen cidu bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz guh fazcanj caeuq cauhmoq youqgaenj,《Gietdinghgvidingh:“Caezcienz aen cidu bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminzbaujcang gij buenxsaemj gienzleih vunzbiengzgyahung gij fanveiz camgya saemjcaezcienz gij fuengsik youz aengih nep sienjhawj gij cidu bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz lai ndaej vunzbiengz saenqciemhciemh hengzguh boux-buenxsaemj yinzminz mbouj caiq saemjleix faplwd habyungh vwndizdan caeuqfaenh saemjleix saedsaeh nyinhdingh vwnzdiz. [1]Daengx Guek Yinzda fatbouh Daengx Guek Yinzminz Daibyauj Daihhoih Cangzvu Veijyenzvei Aen Gietdingh Gvendaengz Hawj Gienz Youq Mbangj Dieg Haiguh Gij Hongsaeh Sawqhengz Gaijgwz Aen Cidu Bouxbuenxsaemj YinzminzCauj-an)》,faencek gij minzcuj fazci caeuq doxhuz seveiyouq mwh dawzfap goengcingq, dinghlaeb gij yungh-cawq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminzdoengh gij neix dwg gij hengzguh cauhmoq gaijgwz dawzfapmaihauh hongsaeh buenxsaemj haeuj daengz aen mbaek moq.  

  Gvangjsih dieg youq henzhaij baihsaenamz Cungguekdwg najcoh aendou youqgaenj caeuq giz ceiq baihnaj Dunghmungz ginghci baedauqyouh dwg giz dieg lai minzcuz youqseiqhenz diegdeih daeg-bied caeuq dwg bakhamq gozci mouyiz baedauqdaengx dieg gyonj miz gyaeujvunz 5000 lai fanh bouxndawde gij vunzsoq siujsoq minzcuz daihiek miz 1778 fanh bouxciemq soqgyoeb gyaeujvunz 38%, daengx dieg gungh miz bouxbuenxsaemj 4271 bouxgyoengqde gietcomz dungxcaiz caeuq caiznaengz gyoengq vunzlai gak minzcuz Gvangjsihvih baujcang gihyiz ginghci caeuq fazcanj ok gij goengrengz gyoengqde. Gak aen fazyen caengzlaj guh gij damqra caeuq cauhmoq miz cingsaenz ciuhseizdoekdingh gij fazyen giz sawqhengz yiengh hongsaeh gaijgwz boux-buenxsaemj yinzminzyouq mwh seizndei caeuq saeh-naek caemh mizdaj sevei lai giz lai mbiengj bae gouzra haujlai gij fuengfap dwg gaijgwz caen hengz ndaej neix. Vihneix bouxraiz yaekdawz lwgda comz youq beizyin songyauq bouxbuenxsaemj rox yungh song vahsaw fuengmienhdamqra gij mizyungh song vahsaw, youq mwh dawzfap ndaej bangcoengh gyoengq vunzbiengz dieg minzcuz gauqsaehhawj bouxbuenx-saemj yinzminz youq mwh dawzfap gauqsaeh guhbaenz boux bang ginzcung gangjvah. 

  ItCoengmingz baujcangHaiguh gij hongsaeh songyauq bouxbuenxsaemj yinz-minz rox yungh song vahsaw dwg sevei aeuyungh 

  “Vah caux okdaeuj couh dwg vih gangjok gij yienghsaeh fanjyingj gwzgvanh caeuq cujgvanh seiq-gyaiq, hoeng yienghsaehdwg daengxaen saek gaiq-yiengh byoxmwdmboujmiz vehfaen mboujmiz gyaiq-hanh, vunzraeuz yungh swzvei coenzvah bae naemj vehfaen caeuq raizveh seiqgyaiqyouh hawj seiqgyaiq doenggvaq coenzvah miz gij yienghsiengq seizneix okdaeuj”,[2] gangjvah dwg yiengh gaiqmoiz gig youq-gaenj sevei cozyung ndeudaegbied dwg youq mwh youq dieg minzcuz hwnqguh fapguenj, bakgangj caeuq raizsaw gangjok sevei fazcanj fuengfueng mienhmienh, hoeng youq mwh dawzfap gauqsaeh ndawde, miz gij yienghsaeh deng coenzvah hanhhaed bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz dawzfap fugsaeh vunzbiengz.  

  Siz Siujyinz youq gwnz Aenhoih Doxdamz Hong-saeh Beizyin Fazgvanh Rox Yungh SongVahsaw gangj: Raeuz lij aeu lailai hawj bouxbuenxsaemj rox yungh song vahsaw buenxsaemjyouq seiz noix boux rox song vahsawaeu bouxbuenxsaemj rox song vahsaw haenx dangguh gij ligliengh boujgya boux fazyen rox yungh song vahsawbaenzneix baujcwng fazyen yungh song-vahsaw hwnjgauq caeuq guh hongsaeh ginzcung aeuyungh.[3] Yungh song vahsaw dwg gangj yungh vah minzcuz bonjfaenh youh yungh Vahbujdungh guek-gyagenjdanh heuhguh gij minzcuz rox yungh song vahsaw caeuq Bouxgun rox yungh song vahsaw. Youq mwh saedguh hongsaeh buenxsaemj, bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz siujsoq minzcuz ndaej yungh vah raeuzred minzcuz bonjfaen, youh ndaej yungh Vahbujdungh youq dingzsaemj doxgangjyungh gij naengzlig doeng-gvaqaenuk rox song vahsawdaeuj gangjok caeuq lij-gaij daengxseiz dingzsaemj,baenzneix ndaej swnhleih gaijgez cungjcungj doxcengcoicaenh bouxdangsaeh ndaepsaeh huzgaij, hawj vunzbiengz dieg minzcuz youq mwh dawzfap huzndei ndaej daengz ndeicawq, gibseiz fanjyingj swhsiengj caeuq nyienhmuengh bek-singq, bangnyoengx gij gvanhaeh dawzfap ndaw siuj-soq minzcuz guhbaenz engq huzndei, hawj yinzminz ginzcung caencingq roxnyinh daengz bouxbuenxsaemj rox song vahsaw, youq seiz dingzsaemj miz yungh dangqmaz. Doengzseiz youh coicaenh gak gaep yinz-minz fazyen dieg minzcuz aeu roengzrengz damqra diuzloh mizyauq beizyin son’gyauq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz, cingqdeng bae dawzndei gij gvanhaeh lai yiengh vah minzcuz, gingqcungh lai aen minzcuz faz-canj gvilwd, cauxguh aen vanzging hwnjgauq haemq ndei, hab gyoengq ginzcung dieg minzcuz aeuyungh. Gvangjsih fazcanj baenz yienghneix, liz mbouj ndaej aen vanzging aeu fapguenj guh daemxcengj caeuq baujcang, aeu dungyenz sevei gak gyaiq vih son-gyauq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox song vahsaw ok geiq ok maeuz, cawqleix ndei gij gvanhaeh vah minz-cuz caeuq sevei, hawj ginzcung gag rox haeuj daengz ndaw faplwd swhveiz daeuj, hingzveiz gveihfan gyoengqde hab ndawbiengz minzcuz fazcanj aeuyungh, youh doiqgveihfan sibgvenq ndawbiengz haeuj sevei miz bangcoengh, youq gwnz giekdaej neix, ciuqei son-gyauq rox yungh songvahsaw gveihfan fazcanj, guh-baenz hongsaeh buenxsaemj cauhmoq, gaeuq hawj beksingq minzcuz dawzfap gauqsaeh aeuyungh. 

  NgeihCauhmoq saedguhDamqra diuzloh beizyin songyauq song vahsaw bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz 

  Dieg minzcuzyouq fazcanj gyaenanz ndawde guhbaenz le gij fuengsik yungh vah bonjfaenh dox-gangj neix, “Cungguek couh dwg aen guekgya bauh-amz haujlai aen minzcuz ndeu, daj ciuhgeq hainduj, gwnz benq dieg neix couh yungh gak cungj gak yiengh vah, miz boux yenzgiu gaujcingq, cungj rox yungh songvahsaw neix, daj mwh biengz ciuhnduj couh gaenq guhbaenz.”[4] Daj gij song vahsaw fazcanj caeuq lienzdaemh daeuj yawj, fapguek guekgya daez-ok, siujsoq minzcuz cungj ndaej yungh vah minzcuz bonjfaenh, hix iudaeuz doigvangq yiengh vah guekgya doengyungh, hix couh dwg Vahbujdungh Vahgun, neix couh hawj gij vahminzcuz bonjfaenh caeuq Vahbuj-dungh Vahgun song vahsaw doxgangj fazcanj riengj-vaiq, doiq gij dawzfap diuzgaij doxgangj doxdoeng-minzcuz ndawde miz sevei yiyi youqgaenj, daegbied dwg youq minzcuz dox baedauq ndawde, doxsan miz haujlai yinzvwnz vwndiz, neix iugouz hongsaeh fazyen aeuyungh damqra fuengfap moq, hawj gij fuengfap neix hab dieg minzcuz fazcanj aeuyungh, Gvangjsih gak aen fazyen caengzlaj youq mwh hezdiuz fazcanj mbiengj ndeu ginghci, saedbauj mbiengj ndeu youq seiz an’onj aeundaej yaugoj ndei, “aen fazyen dieg minzcuz fucwz saemjleix gak cungj anqgienh aenvih doxceng cauxbaenz hwnjgauj neix, dwg diuzloh youq-gaenj gaijgez dieg minzcuz doxceng. Gij gihci dawzfap gaijgez doxceng dieg minzcuz haenx miz cozyung youqgaenj, mboujdan raen youq soqliengh anqgienh fuengmienh, lij raen youq ndaw gij hozdung doeng-gvaq fazyen saemjbuenq roxnaeuz diuzgaij, doiq gap-baenz gij gihci gaijgez lai yiengh doxceng mizok cozyung ndei”[5], saedhengz gij cidu bouxbuenxsamj yinzminz doxdaeuj, gij anqgienh yungh song vahsaw saemjleix engqgya hawj hongsaeh bouxbuenxsaemj miz giz yungh lai, hawj hongsaeh bouxbuenxsaemj youq dieg minzcuz caencingq fazveih ciznwngz daegsaek, dieg minzcuz hongsaeh buenxsaemj mbebaij gij anq-gienh lai cungj lai yiengh buenxsaemj saedguh haenx, saedguh gangjmingz, dieg minzcuz dawzfap gaijci it-dingh aeu riengz minzcuz sibgvenq byaij roengzbae, cijndaej daengz sevei yauyiz ndei. Lumjbaenz Yungz-suij Myauzcuz Swciyen miz MyauzcuzYauzcuzDungcuzBouxcuenghBouxgun lai aen minzcuz, gak aen minzcuz cungj gag yungh vah bonjfaenh daeuj doxgangj doxhag. Hoeng mizmbangj dieg aenvih fazcanj mbouj bingzyaenx, vwnzva suciz daemq, doiq gaijgez gij doxdawz doxceng roxyiuj mbouj daengz giz, daegbied gyoengq boux gihminz seiqhajcib bi dox-hwnj, dingzlai mbouj rox gangj Vahbujdungh, dan rox vah minzcuz bonjfaenh, yiengh saeh neix hawj fazyen guh saemjbuenq miz di gunnanz, Yungzsuij Myauzcuz Swciyen Yinzminz Fazyen buqgej le diuz daeznanz neix, hawj bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox yungh song-vahsaw, yungh vah minzcuz caeuq bouxdangsaeh dox-gangj, dawz sim depgyawj ginzcung, hawj gyoengq boux beksingq mbouj dingq Vahbujdungh, youq ndaw doxceng rox dauhleix fap caeuq simcingz vunz, baenz-neix bae gej gij hotgazndawsim vunz, giet anq sat saeh. Yungzsuij Myauzcuz Swciyen Yinzminz Fazyen youq seiz saedguh yungh ndei bouxbuenxsaemj yinz-minz rox yungh song vahsaw, youq mwh dingzsaemj rox yungh song vahsaw doxgangj, doiq gaijgez doxceng ndei dangqmaz, engqgya gepgyawj ndawbiengz hab simhoz beksingq, aeu miz dawzfap gienzvi cix mbouj dwg doenggvaq gaemhanh doxbik, cix dwg youq mwh saemjleix anqgienh seizseiz doenggvaq fapguenjaeu-eiq vunzmiz minzcuz yisiz daeuj guh. 

  Lungzcouh Yen Yinzminz Fazyen vih hab hong-saeh fazyen aeuyungh, youq seiz genj bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz aeu bingzyaenz bouxvunz gak yiengh minz-cuz, daegbied aeu Vahbujdungh ndei mbouj ndei dangguh diuz biucinj daih’it daeuj genj vunz, aeu hab Dunghmungz henzguek mouyiz ginghci fazcanj, youq seiz gaijgez Cungh Yez henzguek beksingq doxceng, baijok gij yunghcawq song vahsaw, doengzseiz yen fazyen youq seiz gyagiengz beizyin songyauq boux-buenxsaemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw, yungh gij guhfap gig ndeiseizseiz hawj bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz youq ndaw song vahsaw doxgangj cungsaed bonjfaenh, vih bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz cauxok seiz-ndei caeuq dieghoengq, hawj song vahsaw dawzfap diuzgaij youq fazcanj gvaegdieg ginghci caeuq baujcang leih’ik minzcuz fazveih cozyung youqgaenj. Lumjbaenz, mizmbangj bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz dwg Ginghcuz, yungh “vahmbanj” Ginghcuz, “sim doeng sim” bae soengq “daehlaex” fapguenj hawj boux-cawxhuq caeuq ginzcung, youq seiz dingzsaemj caeuq diuzgaij gejrungq doxdawz, ndaej ginzcung dangdieg haenhndei. Neix yawjraen son’gyauq bouxbuenxsaemj fazyen caengzlaj dieg minzcuz rox yungh song vahsaw, doiq gaijgez gij doxceng ndawbiengz gyoengq vunzlai, baujcwng ndaej doxgangj caeuqdox doengsim, hawj bouxdangsaeh habhoz, youh dwg fazyen dawzyungh gienzsaemjbuenq caeuq gij hozdung gauqsaehdawzfap aeuyungh. Ndigah,“aeu gaenx gyagiengz gij hongsaeh beizyin songyauq faplwd song vahsaw, mboujduenh daezsang gij naengzlig caeuq suijbingz dawzfap, caen-saed baujcang gij gienzik habfap gyoengq vunzlai siujsoq minzcuz, vih coicaenh minzcuz doxgiet, bauj-cang guekgya daengxbuenz onjdingh gunghawj dawz-fap baujcang mizrengz”. [6] 

  Gvangjsih song vahsaw saemjbuenq cingq saed-guh damqra caeuq cauhmoq,neix hab dawzfap dijci gaijgwz caeuq daengzcog fazcanj fuengyiengq, yaek youq mwh cauxlaeb aenbiengz doxhuz miz yungh dangqmaz. Gvangjsih dwg aen dieg lai minzcuz, mbouj doengz dieg yungh mbouj doengz yiengh vah bae senhconz fapguenj, dwg gij fuengfap daezsang ginz-cung faplwd yisiz ceiq ndei, ndigah fazyen haiguh gij son’gyauq rox yungh song vahsaw, roengzrengz hung bae doigvangq Vahbujdungh, baujmaenh vah minzcuz ndaej cienzciep caeuq fazcanj dwg gij guhfap mizyauq hawj hongsaeh buenxsaemj dieg minzcuz engqgya bienqbaenz gveihfanbienqbaenz seveiva. Hoeng youq ndaw yienhsaeh, gij hongsaehyungh song vahsaw buenxsaemj fazcanj mbouj doxdaengh, daegbied dwg gij fazdingz dieg byalueg henzgyae noix miz boux rox yungh song vahsaw, youh deng cienzngaenz hanhhaed, mbouj miz banhfap gaijgez doengh gij vwndiz nem daihhagdangz caeuq gohyenz gihgou lienzhab beizyin son’gyauq song vahsaw.“Song vahsaw son’gyauq ndaej cwngmingz dwg gij roenloh minzcuz gyauyuz fazcanj ndawde diuz mizyauq ndeu. Mbouj doengz minzcuz, diegyouq cingzgvang mbouj doengzsevei vwnzva beigingj mbouj doengzaendieg vahgangj sangdaemq mbouj doengzsimnyienh minzcuz mbouj doengzginghci diuzgen caeuq banhhag diuzgen mbouj doengz, gij neihanz caeuq neiyungz son’gyauq vah minzcuz vah Bouxgun hix couh miz cengca”.[7] Gak aen fazyen caengzlaj youq dieg minzcuz mbouj miz saenqsim caeuq gietsim beizyin son’gyauqboux-buenxsaemj rox yungh song vahsaw, lauxsae mbouj gaeuq nanz ndaej guh, mizmbangj lingjdauj mbouj yawjnaek beizyin son’gyauq, dan caj Guekgya Minz-veij caeuq Gauhgiz Fazyen hawj cienzngaenz caeuq swhyenz caiq haifat leihyungh. Doiq doengh aen faz-yenz caengzlaj guh mbouj ndei, aeu gyagiengz doxgap doxlwnh, doenggvaq gij guhfap doxlienz hengzguh neix bae roengzrengz damqcaz caezcienz gij fuengsik beiz-yin songyauq, dazyinx bouxcanghcaizbouxbuenx-saemj camgya diuyenzok geiqmaeuzyouh doenggvaq fapguek caeuq faplwd gaemhanh guhdaengz banhfap ceiq ndei, youq mwh bienqbaenz doxcaemhneix guh-baenz cungj gvanhaeh doxcoi doxbouj. Guekgya Minz-veij caeuq deihfueng cwngfuj wngdang gyagiengz son-yinx caeuq bangcoengh, baenghciuq gij lijnen caeuq ginghyen senhcin, deudoeng gij guhfap dox baedauq, coicaenh mizyauq cienjvaq, cungjgez ginghyen caeuq gag rox hitdai, baenzneix sonyinx yinzminz ginzcung byaij ok giz loengloek son’gyauq caeuq dawzyungh song vahsaw, youq giz cengca raaeu giz yawjfap dox-doengz, hawj boux guh hongsaeh faplwd dieg minzcuz caeuq ginzcung lai roxyiuj gij sevei gyaciz son’gyauq beizyin rox yungh song vahsaw. 

  SamGaemdawz seizndeiHai aen giz-mienh moq beizyin songyauq bouxbuenx-saemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw 

  Gveihfan bae gensez aen cidu buenxsaemj dieg minzcuzaeu heuh daengx biengz buqgej gij gitgaz beizyin songyauq song vahsaw, daegbied dwg aeu Gvangjsih dangguh giz dieg ciengzlwenx banh Dungh-mungz Bozlanjvei, cienz rogguek mboujduenh haeuj-daeuj, henzguek mouzyiz doxceng mboujduenh gyalai, haiguhyiengh hongsaeh diuzgaij gij doxceng aenvih henzguek mouyiz mizok, youz bouxbuenxsaemj yinz-minz yungh song vahsaw daeuj guh, neix yaek guh-baenz gij rengznyoengx lai mbiengj ginghci fazcanj, “Cungguek - Dunghmungz Bozlanjvei dangguh aen daizbingz seizneix mizgaenq ndaej yungh daeuj hwnqguh diuzloh Seicouz Gwnzhaij 21 sigij, Youq gwnz aenhot ciuhneix, yaek laebdaeb dwkdoeng diuz-roen gvangq mouyiz seicouz gwnzhaijcuengqhai gij simndei saehndei dox haeujok dox gapguh neix, cang yienj boux caeuqfaenhboux doinyoengx lizsij bae-naj.[8] Ceiqsang Yinzminz Fazyen goengbouh saed-hengz Geij Aen Yigen Ceiqsang Yinzminz Fazyen Gvendaengz Yinzminz Fazyen Vih Gensez Rangh Ndeu Loh NdeuGunghawj Dawzfap Fugsaeh Caeuq Baujcang》, gak aen fazyen caengzlaj cienzmienh cauxguh fazyen beizyin songyauq song vahsawmizyauq bae baujcang gij ginghci gensez rangh ndeu loh ndeuguh ndaej swnh, hix dwg gij yawjraen doeksaed caeuq hengzguhAen Fap Vahgangj Saw-faenz Guekgya Doengyunghcaeuq Gij Banhfap Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih Hengzguh Aen Fap Vahgangj Sawfaenz Cunghvaz Yinzminz Gunghozgoz Guekgya Doengyunghsong bouh faplwd fazgveih. Youq gwnz aen giek neix bouxraiz yaek daj bet fuengmienh bae lwnhgangj, youq dieg minzcuz laeb-hwnj caezcienz doih vunz bouxbuenxsaemj rox yungh song vahsaw”, dajgoek bae gaijgez gij vwndiz dawz-yunghcaeuq doxyungz lai yiengh vah daezok duicwz genyi.  

  1.Cauxok aen vanzging moq hawj bouxbuenx-saemj yinzminz yungh song vahsaw youq ndaw fazyen dieg minzcuz dawzfap gauqsaeh 

  Vih gungganq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox song vahsawgak gaep fazyen dieg minzcuz ciuq gij daeg-diemj camgya saemjbuenq hozdung caeuq hongsaeh aeuyungh, haibanh aenban songyauq boux hag yiengh vah, hag gij vah CuenghYiuzByauzDung doengh aen siujsoq minzcuz neixdinghgeiz guh hagsib beizyingujli aeu gag hag guhgoek, doiq gij bouxcoz miz ceiqheiq dakhawj aen daihhagdangz miz-gven neix guh sojmiz gocwngz gaenriengz gungganq, yienghneix couh caenbauj bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz caeuq bouxdangsaeh doxgangj mbouj miz gazngaih, baenzneix baujcang minzcuz ndaej caeuqfaenh dawz-fap caeuq guhbaenz minzcuz doxgap gyoengq youq ndawbiengz, Gvangjsih gauhyau yaek seizseiz aeu dawzfap aeuyungh guh dazyinx, vih son’gyauq boux-buenxsaemj yinzminz hag song vahsaw, aeu lai yienghsik dox giethab biensij bonjsaw songyauq, ciuq yiengh vah mbouj doengz dieg guh dohmeizdij goq-gienh. Lai yungh fazyen sam gaep vangjloz, hengzguh song vahsaw gizgyae vangjloz beizyingaenx damqra gij fuengfap moq haiguh song vahsaw beizyin. Doengzseiz gak gaep cwngfuj cungj wnggai daj cwngcwz fuengmienh nyeng coh fazyen, gaenx ceng ndaej Guekgya Minzveij caeuq gauhyen bangcoengh, youq ndaw biengz mbanjranz caeuq minzcuz gung-dungzdij, ciuqei gij fazcanj gvilwd vah minzcuz bae haiguh song vahsaw beizyin gihci moq, baenzneix cauxguh aen vanzging moq Gvangjsih gak cuz yinzminz dawzfap hwnjgauq.  

  2. Gyaak gij naengzlig bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz youq ndaw fazyen dieg minzcuz dawzyungh song vahsaw 

  Gak gaep fazyen aeu gaenx sonyinx bouxbuenx-saemj yinzminz, hawj gyoengqde youq mwh saedguh saemjbuenq dawzyungh song vahsaw aeundaej cihsiz caeuq gij naengzlig faencek vwndiz neixcujciz gyoengq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz nyinhcaen hagsib vah minzcuz, dawz gij vah neix yungh youq ndaw hongsaeh saemjbuenq, caencingq gaijgez gij hwnjgauq nanzdaez ginzcung dangdieg. Doengzseiz gak gaep fazyen doenggvaq gak cungj caidij senhconz boux-buenxsaemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw, gungq-ganq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox sug yungh cinj coenzvah, caux aen vanzging buenxsaemj miz daeg-saek minzcuz, yinzda aeu cujciz yinzda daibyauj-genjcaz gij cingzgvang beizyin son’gyauq bouxbuenx-saemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw, ok geiq ok-maeuz, mizrengz bae ngoengx hongsaeh buenxsaemj guh baenaj, mizyauq bae gikcoi bouxbuenxsaemj yinz-minz ciengzseiz ndaej dawz song vahsaw raeuzred yungh youq giz hwnjgauq, damqra gij fuengfap moq daeuj dawzyungh vahgangj.  

  3. Doeksaed gij yienghsaeh moq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw youq ndaw fazyen dieg minzcuz gvancez fapguek hagsib 

  Nyinhcaen gvancez saedhengz gak hangh gvi-dingh ndaw Fapguek》“vunzbiengz gak minzcuz cungj miz gij gienzleih yungh vahgangj sawfaenz minzcuz bonjfaenh daeuj gauqsaeh. Yinzminz fazyen caeuq yinzminz genjcazyen doiq boux caeuqfaenh gauqsaeh mbouj rox gij vahgangj sawfaenz dangdieg doeng-yungh, wngdang bang gyoengqde fanhoiz”[9]. Cinjdeng bae lijgaij caeuq dawzyungh vah minzcuz,engq ndaej baujciz gij ciennieb fazliz caeuq hawj ginzcung nyinh-dwg. Ndigah gak gaep fazyen cujciz bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz hag vah minzcuz, saedbauj caeuq boux-dangsaeh baeedauq doxgangj mbouj miz gitgaz, laeb-hwnj gij gihci beizyin son’gyauq doxngamj, yungh lai cungj beizyin yienghsik, sonyinx bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz youq mwh hagsong vahsaw, gag ndaej daengz cihciz vahgangj caeuqgij naengzlig faencek vwndiz, baenzneix ra ndaej gij roenloh moq gaijgez doxceng. 

  4. Damqra gij fuengsik moq hailangh fuengbienh son’gyauq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw 

  Dieg minzcuz aeu lailai bae yungh gijndei boux-buenxsaemj yinzminz, gyoengqde ginghyen ndaw-biengz laisugrox gij simmuengh yinzminz, roengz-rengz damqra gij gihci moq hongsaeh cauhmoq bonj-dieg, guhbaenz gij ginghyen daj ndawbiengz daeuj,dwg miz rengzhoengh cauhmoq,rox dawzyungh saemjbuenq sizcen, gak gaep fazyen aeu miz giva doenggvaq lai yienghsik bae haiguh gij hongsaeh beiz yin vahgangj, doekdingh beizyin neiyungz, giethab gij saedsaeh cingzgvang doengh dieg siujsoq minzcuz comzyouq, caezcienz gij beizyin son’gyauq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw, doiq bouxbuenx-saemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw gig ndei, gak gaep yinzminz fazyen aeu guh byaujcangh, caeuq hongsaeh bienqdoengh dem leih’ik doxlienz. Gak gaep fazyen aeu laebhwnj gij gihci bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox song vahsaw swhyenz caezyiengj, youq daiyi fuengmienh doiq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz canghcaiz caeuq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz dieg wnq rox song vahsaw, aeu boujhawj daengz giz, seizseiz hawj bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz“miz daegdiemj laj-mbanj dangqmaz” neix fazveih naengzliengh cingq. 

  5. Baijok bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw fazyen dieg minzcuz guh ndaej saehcingz moq 

  Bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz youq mwh saedhengz faplwd guekgya ciuhneix, cangyienj boux youqgaenj, gak gaep fazyenz aeu gaenx vih bouxbuenxsaemj yinz-minz rox song vahsaw, gaphwnj aen daizbingz dox gangj dox hag song vahsaw, coicaenh fazgvanh caeuq bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz ndaej cihsiz doxbouj. Yinz-da aeu gamduk gij cingzgvang beizyin song vahsaw bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz, doengzseiz gak gaep fazyen youq mwh habseiz ciuhai gij hoih doxdamz anqlaeh caeuq ginghyen yungh song vahsaw gaijgez dawzfap doxceng, coicaenh bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz vih minzcuz dawzfap ok goengrengz, aen fazyen mbouj doengz guenjhanh gij vwnzva de mbouj doengz, yungh yienghsik lingzvued daeuj cingj bouxbuenxsaemj yinz-minz “boux gag hag rox” ndawbiengz cienz ginghyen caeuq guhfap, habseiz diuzcingj gij hingzveiz boux-buenxsaemj yinzminz rox song vahsaw. 

  6. Caezcienz gij gihci moq bouxbuenxsaemj yinz-minz rox song vahsaw, youq ndaw fazyen dieg minzcuz yiengq ndaw yiengq rog hagsib 

  Vah minzcuz dwg gij doxgaiq aen minzcuz caez-caemh gwndaenj baedauq seiz dam seiz gyoebgyonj baenz haenx, bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz aeu seizseiz yungh gij fuengsik minzcuz yungzhab caeuq vwnzva hailangh daeuj guhbaenz hongsaeh buenxsaemj, cij ndaej fungfouq minzcuz fazci gensez. Gak gaep fazyen hix aeu gaenjgaenj baenghdak gij coengming boux-canghcaiz caeuq bouxcaizlaeg daeuj caezcienz gij son’gyauq caeuq beizyin bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw, caeuq daihhagdangz laebhwnj gij guhfap doxlienz beizyin, baenzneix yawjraen gij daegdiemj saemjbuenq caeuq buenxsaemj yungh song vahsaw, guhbaenz “faplwd lai yiengh yungh” caeuq “vwnzva lai yiengh yungh” ceng’aeu youq dieg minz-cuz laebhwnj cidu lienzhaeh, coicaenh gak gaep faz-yen yungh song vahsaw saemjleix anqgienh caeuq hongsaeh diuzgaij miz doedbyoengq moq. 

  7. Hai seizndei hawj bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz youq dieg minzcuz rox yungh song vahsaw guhbaenz lai yiengh vah minzcuz doxdoeng 

  Ginzcung dieg minzcuz doiq dawzfap goeng-cingqgoengbingz iugouz yied daeuj yied sang, neix couh aeu goengrengz lai fuengmienh ndaw biengz haeujdaeuj guh, gij giva baenzboix gyahwnjboux-buenxsaemj yinzminz hab ndawbiengz aeuyunghseizseiz gyaak gij naengzlig yungh vah moix boux-buenxsaemj yinzminz, yungh yiengh dox gangj dox doeng haemq ndei neix hawj bouxdangsaeh habhozguhbaenz bouxbuenxsaemj youq seiz banh anqgienq caeuq bouxdangsaeh doeng vah mbouj miz saekdi gitgazhawj bouxbuenxsaemj miz yiengh gunghnwngz moq. Gak gaep yinzminz fazyen itdingh aeu gyagiengz gohyoz guenjleix, youq mwh caezcienz bouxbuenx-saemj yinzminz doiqok gihciyawjnaek gyabouj bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz mbouj doengz minzcuzyouq mwh gaijgwz vah buenxsaemj daj lai giz yawj neix, engqgya dawznaek minzcuz daegsaeknyinhcaen hawj ginzcung rox buenqdingh gezgoj, engq roxcingq buenqdingh baengzgawq caeuq gocwngz, lailai yawj-raen song vahsaw saemjleix anqgienh dwg hangh gunghcwngz ndei beksingqdieg minzcuz ndeu. 

  8. Hawj son’gyauq beizyin bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz rox yungh song vahsaw youq ndaw fazyen dieg minzcuz ndaej baenz gienhsaeh ndawbiengz 

  Gak gaep fazyen dieg minzcuz aeu ciengzseiz cujciz fazgvanhbouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz dungxcaiz laeggeq daeuj doiq hongsaeh buenxsaemj gangjgangj faplwd conhyez cihsizdaudwz monzhongsaehnaengzlig buenxsaemjdawzfap diuzgaij doengh fuengmienh neix baenzlawz yungh song vahsawgangjgej faencek gij anqgienh denjhingzmiz saek mwh lij aeu hengzguh yiengh byaij okbaecaeuq cingj haeujdaeuj, gibseiz handauq gij sevei dawzfap gak cuz yinzminz aeuyungh de. Dwkbyoengq gij laengzgaz vah hwnjgauq ndawgyang fazyen caeuq ndawbiengz, baenzneix coihawj vah minzcuz son-gyauq gapbaenz gyoengq ndeucingjhab swhyenzdajcaux aen daizbingz hongsaehcauhmoq gij fueng-sik doiqciepgohyenz gihgvanh caeuq daihhagdangz aeu cujciz soengq gungganq daengz fazyenguh hongsaeh beizyin, sonyinx caeuq gyagiengz gij sim-cingz hagsib bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz,yawjnaek son-gyauq gij naengzlig dingqgangjhoiz, gizgiz hengz-guhguhbaenz gij hongsaeh fazyen dieg minzcuz caeuq vah minzcuz dox doiqciep.  

  Gyonj daeuj gangj, beizyin songyauq rox yungh song vahsaw youq dieg minzcuz dwg giz youqgaenj cauxbaenz ndawbiengz doxhuz, “song vahsaw son-gyauq dwg gienhsaeh guhbaenz minzcuz bingzdaengjgoengbingz fazcanj gak minzcuz vwnzva caeuq vah-gangj doi mbouj bae[10] , doengzseiz hix dwg yiengh fuengfap ceiq mizyauq gvancez gij cwngcwz dangj caeuq guekgya gvendaengz vahgangj sawfaenzdoek-saed gij dungjyiz caeuq gij lai yiengh vahgangj, youq mwh doigvangq Vahbujdungh neix baujhoh vah minz-cuz caeuq vah deihfueng vunzsoq noix.”[11] Gak gaep fazyen song vahsaw son’gyauq daj damqra dinghlaeb daengz doigvangq dawzyungh, mboujduenh gaeuqdoh minzcuz ginzcung aeuyungh. Youq mwh hengzguh gij cidu bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz caezcienz gij hongsaeh hagsib beizyin song vahsaw dieg minzcuz, yaek ndei guh doidoengh lienzdaemh caeuq fazcanj hongsaeh bouxbuenxsaemj yinzminz, gak gaep fazyen lai yungh gij ginghyen cienzboq vah ndaw biengz, aeu fapguek caeuq faplwd guh hanhaed coicaenh vah minzcuz bingzyaenx, hawj son’gyauq song vahsaw bienqbaenz saeh ndawbiengz, baenzneix hawj aensim vunzgyoengq gak cuz yinzminz youq ndaw vahgangj roxnyinh daengz dawzfap goengcingq.  

  [Genjdanh gaisau bouxraiz] Gauh Veiginh, Gvangjsih Minzcuz Dayoz Fazcanj Gveihvacu gohcangj, gyauzyuzyoz sozsw, culij yenzgiuyenz; Gauh Cicangh, yenzgiuyenz, Nanzningz Si Sihyanghdangz Gih Yinzminz Fazyen bouxbuenxsaemj, Nanzningz Si Laujnenz Gohyoz Hezvei veiyenz. 

  [Genjdanh gaisau bouxhoiz] Veiz Caijcinh, Cunghyangh Minzcuz Yijvwnz Fanhyizgiz fuyizsinj. 

   Sawfaenz Ciuqyawj:

  [1]Aen Gietdingh Cunghgungh Cunghyangh Gvendaengz Geij Aen Vwndiz Hungnaek Ciuqfap Guenj Guek [EB/OL]. http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-10/28/c_1113015330_4.htm.2014-10-28. 

  [2] Cinz Hinghliengz guhgoek bienraiz Lwnh Fuengfap Yenzgiu, Cinghvaz Dayoz Cuzbanjse 2006 nienz banj, 46. 

  [3] Hij Cungh. Dwkbyoengq Gij Laengzgaz Vahgangj Gaq Diuzgiuz Doxdoengz—Aen Hoih Doxdamz Hongsaeh Beizyin Gungganq Fazgvanh Rox Yungh Song Vahsaw Gyonj Lwnh [N]. Yinzminz Fazyen Bauq, 2015 -5-29 (3). 

  [4] Cun Hungzbinh, Cangh Vwnzsen. Gij Guhfap Mizyauq Doihengz Song Vahsaw—Laebhwnj Swnghdai Vanzging Vahgangj Doxhuz [J]. Gyaciz Gunghcwngz. 2015 (8): 313-315. 

  [5] Cangz Lieng. Gij Guhfap Gaijgez Doxceng Dawzfap Dieg Minzcuz Yenzgiu [D]. Baekging: Cunghyangh Minzcuz Daiyoz,2013:5, 14,12. 

  [6] Couh Gyangz. Gyagiengz Gij Hongsaeh Faplwd Son’gyauq Beizyin Yungh Song Vahsaw Dawzfap Gaenx Coicaenh Dieg Minzcuz Fazci Gensez [N]. Yinzminz Fazyen Bauq, 2015-3-16 (1). 

  [7] Veiz Sugvanh, Ouhyangz Cangzcingh. Leixsingq Guh Ngeixnaemj, Laegdaeuq Bae BajaekBingz Lwnh Cuengh Gun Song Vahsaw Sonqyauq Fazcanj[J]. Gvangjsih Minzcuz Dayoz Yozbau. 2015 (1):173-175. 

  [8] Linz Hanz. Cunghgoz Dunghmungz Bozlanjvei Gwnzhaij Seicouz Mouyiz Lohmoq Bingzdaiz Hung Doxdoeng [J] . Cunghgoz -Dunghmungz Bozlanj. 2014 (9): 25. 

  [9] Fapguek Cunghvaz Yinzminz Gunghozgoz [EB/OL] . http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/ 2004/content_62714.htm. 

  [10] Gu Vazsiengz. Gij Hitdai Caeuq Singjgaeh Meijgoz Song Vahsaw Son’gyauq Fazcanj—Giem Lwnh Gij Cekeiq Fazcanj Song Vahsaw Son’gyauq Dieg Minzcuz Guek Raeuz [J]. Guekgya Gyauyuz Hingzcwng Yozyen Yozbau. 2008(1):86-95. 

  [11] Liuz Licing. Youq Laj Yiengh Bienqbaenz Hawsingz Gvangjsih Vah Minzcuz Swnghdai Vwndiz Yenzgiu [J]. Gvangjsih Sevei Gohyoz. 2014 (12):65-68.  


 附:《汉语版:民族地区开展人民陪审员双语培训教育的思考》

  [摘 要] 语言交流是法律诉讼媒介,法律以准确合理的语言表述形成司法和谐和公正。民族地区受文化、风俗习惯等影响,在司法诉讼中存在语言能力制约陪审员功能发挥的现象。各级法院以宪法为中心,以司法为民为出发点和落脚点,在社会中建立完善“双语复合型”陪审员队伍,确保语言之路通畅,使其为民所知所用,保障民族地区群众诉讼的权利。文章从三个方面阐述双语培训教育在陪审工作中的重要性。规范双语教育,使司法语言承载司法公正,借助民族院校和研究机构专家学者之力,建立培训机构,强化自主培养培训意识,使陪审员成为民族语言引领者、民族语言司法诉讼的传承者,只有这样才能释放为民族服务的正能量。 

  [关键词] 双语培训;司法公正;司法民主;功能发挥 

  十八届四中全会审议通过的《中共中央关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定》(以下简称《决定》),是对人民陪审员制度的重大发展和创新,《决定》规定:“完善人民陪审员制度,保障公民陪审权利,扩大参审范围,完善随机抽选方式,提高人民陪审制度公信度,逐步实行人民陪审员不再审理法律适用问题,只参与审理事实认定问题。”[1]全国人大颁发全国人民代表大会常务委员会《关于授权在部分地区开展人民陪审员制度改革试点工作的决定(草案)》,对民主法治与和谐社会进行分析,确立人民陪审员在司法公正中的作用,这些都是司法改革的新创举,标志陪审工作步入一个新的台阶。 

  广西地处中国西南沿海,是面向东盟经济交流的重要门户和前沿,又是一个多民族居住的地区,具有特殊的地理环境和国际经贸来往口岸,全区总人口5000多万人,其中少数民族人口约1778万人,占总人口总数的38%,全区共有人民陪审员4271名,他们凝聚了广西各民族人民群众的智慧和才干,为保障区域经济和发展发挥了自身作用。各基层法院进行了富于时代精神的探索和创新,确立了人民陪审员工作改革试点法院,在机遇和挑战并存中,从社会各角度中寻求了许多改革务实方法。为此笔者将视角聚焦在陪审员双语培训教育上,探索双语在司法中为民族地区民众提供诉讼帮助的有效作用,使人民陪审员在司法诉讼中成为“群众代言人”。 

  一、智力保障:开展人民陪审员双语 

  教育工作的社会需求 

  “语言创造出来就是为了表达反映客观和主观世界的事物,但‘事物’本身是某种混沌的整体,没有划分没有界限,人类用词汇语句试图划分和描绘世界,并使世界通过语言呈现现在的样态”,[2]语言表达是社会作用的一种非常重要的媒介,特别在民族地区法治建设中,口语和书面语言反映社会发展的方方面面,但在司法诉讼中存在语言能力制约人民陪审员功能发挥的现象。 

  时小云在双语法官培训工作座谈会上所谈“我们还需充分发挥双语陪审员作用,在双语人员欠缺时,将双语陪审员作为法院双语人员的补充力量,以保证法院双语诉讼和做群众工作的需要”。[3]双语是指既使用本民族语言又兼用国家普通话,简称民族双语或民汉双语。在陪审实践工作中,少数民族的人民陪审员可以熟练使用自身民族语言,又能用普通话进行庭审交流,运用双语思维表达和理解庭审全过程的能力来解决各种纠纷,促进当事人息诉和解,使民族地区民众在司法和谐中受益,及时反映民意,助推少数民族司法关系更加和谐,让人民群众切实感受到双语陪审员在庭审中的作用。同时又促进民族地区各级人民法院要努力探寻有效的人民陪审员培训教育途径,正确把握各民族语言关系,尊重各民族发展规律,创造良好的诉讼环境,以适应民族地区民众的需要。广西发展的实现离不开法治环境的支撑和保障,需要动员社会各界为人民陪审员双语教育献计献策,处理好民族语言与社会关系,使群众自觉步入到法律思维中,其行为规范符和社会民族发展的需要,又有助于民间习惯规范步入社会,在此基础上,遵循双语教育规范发展,形成陪审工作创新,满足民族百姓司法诉讼的需求。 

  二、创新实践:人民陪审员双语 

  培训教育的路径探索 

  民族地区在长期发展中形成了自己的语言交流方式,“中国就是一个包含许多民族的国家,从古代开始,这片土地上就使用着多种各式各样语言,有研究者考证,双语现象从原始社会时期就已经形成。”[4]从双语发展和延续角度来看,国家宪法提出,少数民族都能使用自己本民族的语言,也倡导推广国家通用语,也就是汉语普通话,这就使本民族和汉语普通话双语交流现象迅速发展,对民族之间的司法调解交流与沟通有着重大的社会意义,特别在民族交流中交织许多人文问题,这要求法院工作需要探索新的方法适应民族地区发展需要,广西各基层法院在协调发展一方经济,确保一方平安中取得明显效果,“民族地区法院负责各种纠纷引发诉讼案件的审理,是民族地区纠纷解决的重要途径。民族地区解决纠纷司法机制具有重要作用,不仅表现在案件的数量上,更体现在通过其审判或调解活动,对构建多元化纠纷解决机制发挥的积极作用”[5],实施人民陪审员制度以来双语审理案件更加拓宽了陪审工作职能,让陪审员工作在民族地区真正发挥特色职能,民族地区陪审工作展现陪审实践中形形色色的案件,实践见证民族地区司法改制必须沿着民族习俗走下去,才能取得明显社会效益。例如,融水苗族自治县有苗、瑶、侗、壮、汉等多民族,不同民族用自己的语言相互学习交流。但有的地方由于发展不平衡,文化素质低对解决矛盾纠纷认识不到位,特别中年以上的居民大多数不通晓普通话,只会使用本地民族语言,这一现象给法院审判工作带来一定程度的困难,融水苗族自治县人民法院破解了这一难题,让双语人民陪审员利用民族语言与当事人交流,拉近和群众的距离,让听不懂普通话的老百姓在纠纷中明白法理和人情,从而解开心结,案结事了。融水苗族自治县人民法院实践中充分发挥人民陪审员双语作用,庭审中双语交流为解决纠纷带来益处,更加贴近社会合乎民意,体现了司法权威并不依赖强制手段控制,而是在审理案件中时刻在以法制手段和尊重人权、民族意识中进行。 

  龙州县人民法院为适应工作需要,在选任人民陪审员时均衡各族人选,尤其以普通话的好坏作为首选标准,以适应东盟边贸经济发展,在解决中越边民纠纷展现双语的作用,同时县法院在加强人民陪审员双语培训教育中采取积极主动措施,时刻让人民陪审员在双语交流中充实自己,为人民陪审员创造机会和空间,使双语司法调解在发展区域经济和保障民族利益中发挥重要作用。例如,有的人民陪审员是京族,用京族“乡音”“零距离”地为客商和群众送上法治“礼包”,在庭审和调解中善解矛盾,深得当地群众的好评。可见民族地区基层法院陪审员双语教育有利于解决群众民间纠纷,保证顺畅沟通和交流,既获得当事人满意,同时也是法院行使审判权和诉讼活动的司法需求。所以,“要积极加强双语法律教育培训工作,不断提高司法能力和水平,切实保障少数民族群众合法权益,为促进民族团结,保障国家大局稳定提供有力司法保障”。[6] 

  广西双语审判正在进行实践探索和创新,这符合司法体制改革和未来发展方向,将在构建和谐社会中具有举足轻重的作用。广西是个多民族地区,不同地区利用不同语言进行法治宣传,是提高群众法律意识的最佳办法,所以法院开展双语教育,大力推广普通话,保持民族语言的传承和发展是使民族地区陪审工作更加规范化、社会化有效途径。但现实中双语陪审工作发展不平衡,特别偏远山区法庭缺少双语人才,又受资金等影响,无法解决与大专院校和科研机构联合解决双语培训等问题。 “双语教育已被证明是民族教育发展的有效途径之一。但不同的民族,分布情况不同、社会文化背景不同、语言地位不同、民族意愿不同、经济条件和办学条件不同,民汉双语教育的内涵和内容也就有所差异”。[7]在民族地区各基层法院对双语陪审员培训教育缺少信心和决心,师资不到位难以开展,有的院领导不重视培训教育,只等国家民委和高级法院给予资金和资源再开发利用。针对存在不足之处各基层法院要加强合作交流,以联动机制努力从事探讨完善培训教育的方式,引领专家学者、陪审员参与研究、献计献策,并通过宪法和法律控制达到最佳办法,在一体化背景下形成互动互补关系。国家民委和地方政府应加强引导和帮助,借鉴先进的理念和经验,畅通交流机制,促进有效转化,总结经验和教训,从而引导人民群众走出双语教育和运用的误区,在差异中求共识,使民族地区的法律工作者及群众充分认识双语教育培训的社会价值。 

  三、把握时机:打开人民陪审员 

  双语培训教育的新局面 

  民族地区陪审制度规范化建设呼唤社会去破解双语培训教育的难题,特别在广西作为东盟博览会永久举办地,外资不断进入,边境贸易纠纷不断增多,启动人民陪审员用双语来调解边贸发生的纠纷,将成为多边经济发展的推动力量。“中国-东盟博览会作为21世纪海上丝绸之路建设现有的、成熟的平台,在这一时代节点上,将继续打通‘海丝’贸易大通道,释放合作交流正能量,扮演历史进程的参与者、推动者”。[8]最高人民法院公布实施《最高人民法院关于人民法院为“一带一路”建设提供司法服务和保障的若干意见》,各基层法院全面打造法院双语培训教育,有效保障“一带一路” 经济建设的顺利进行,也是落实和实施《国家通用语言文字法》和《广西壮族自治区实施中华人民共和国国家通用语言文字法办法》两部法律法规的体现。在此基础上笔者将从八个方面阐述,在民族地区建立完善“双语复合型”陪审员队伍,彻底解决语言之间运用和融洽等问题提出对策建议。 

  1. 构建民族地区法院双语人民陪审员司法诉讼新环境 

  为培养双语人民陪审员,民族地区各级法院根据参加审判活动的特点和工作的需要开办壮、瑶、苗、侗等少数民族双语培训班,定期进行学习培训,鼓励以自学为主,对有志向的年轻人委托所属大专院校进行全程跟踪培养,这样就确保人民陪审员与当事人交流无障碍,从而保障民族司法参与和实现民族社会化的整合。广西高院要时刻以司法需求为导向,对人民陪审员双语培训以多种形式相结合编写教材,根据不同地区语言制作多媒体课件,充分利用法院三级网络,实施双语远程网络培训,积极探索开展双语培训新方法。同时各级政府都应从政策上向法院倾斜,积极争取国家民委和高院的支持,在乡土社会圈和民族共同体中,遵循民族语言发展规律开展双语培训新机制,从而构建广西各族人民司法诉讼新环境。 

  2. 增强民族地区法院双语人民陪审员语言实际应用能力 

  各级法院要积极引导人民陪审员在审判实践中用双语获取知识和分析问题的能力,组织广大人民陪审员认真学习民族语言,将其运用在审判实际工作中,真正解决当地群众的诉讼难题。同时各级法院通过各种载体宣传双语人民陪审员,培养人民陪审员语言敏感性,营造民族特色的陪审环璄,人大要组织人大代表检查人民陪审员双语培训教育情况,献计献策将有力推动陪审工作发展,有效激发人民陪审员的双语贯通功底,探索开展语言应用的新方法。 

  3. 落实民族地区法院双语人民陪审员贯彻宪法学习新动态 

  认真贯彻实行《宪法》“各民族公民都有用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。人民法院和人民检察院对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译”[9]的各项规定。准确理解和使用民族语言更能保持法律专业性和群众认可度。所以各级法院组织人民陪审员学习民族语言,确保与当事人交流无障碍,建立相应的教育培训机制,釆用多种培训模式,引导人民陪审员在双语学习中,独立获取语言知识和分析问题的能力,从而找到实现解决纠纷的新路径。 

  4. 探索民族地区法院双语人民陪审员开放便民培训新方式 

  民族地区要充分利用人民陪审员社会经验丰富、熟悉民意的优势,努力探索本地区创新工作新机制,形成来自民间的具有创新活力运用审判实践经验。各级法院要有计划开展多种形式的语言培训工作,确定培训内容,结合各地少数民族聚居地区实际情况,完善人民陪审员双语教育培训,对优秀双语人民陪审员,各级法院要给予表彰,与工作升迁和利益相关联。各级法院要建立双语人民陪审员资源共享机制,在待遇上对专家学者人民陪审员和异地双语人民陪审的补助到位,时刻让“挺有乡土味”的人民陪审员发挥正能量。 

  5. 展现民族地区法院双语人民陪审员工作新作为 

  人民陪审员在现代国家法律实施过程中扮演着重要角色,各级法院要积极为双语人民陪审员搭建双语学习交流平台,促进法官和人民陪审员间知识的互补。人大要监督人民陪审员双语培训情况,同时各级法院在适当时机召开双语解决司法纠纷案例和经验交流会,促进人民陪审员为民族司法贡献力量,不同辖区法院文化差异,采取灵活方式聘请来自民间“草根” 人民陪审员传送经验和做法,适时调整人民陪审员双语交际行为。 

  6. 完善民族地区法院双语人民陪审员内外学习新机制 

  民族语言是一个民族在长期共同生活实践交流的总和,人民陪审员要时刻用民族融合和文化开放的方式来完成陪审工作,才能丰富民族法制建设。各级法院也要紧紧依托专家和学者的智慧来完善人民陪审员双语教育和培训,与大专院校建立联动培训教育机制,从而体现双语审判和陪审的“法律多元”和“文化多元”的特征,力争在民族地区建立联系制度,促进各级法院双语审理案件和调解工作新突破。 

  7. 开拓民族地区法院双语人民陪审员多民族语言交流新契机 

  民族地区群众对司法公正、公平要求越来越高,这就需要社会各方力量的介入,人民陪审员“倍增计划”适应了社会的需求,时刻增强每位人民陪审员语言运用能力,用良好的语言交流能获得当事人满意,让办案沟通零障碍将发挥陪审员新的功能。各级法院必须加强科学管理,在完善人民陪审员“退出机制”时注重增补不同民族的人民陪审员,多视角语言陪审改革中更加突出民族特色,真正让人民群众知道裁决的结果,更知道裁决的依据和过程,充分体现双语审理案件是民族地区一项“惠民工程”。 

  8. 推动民族地区法院双语人民陪审员教育培训社会化 

  民族地区各级法院要经常组织法官、资深人民陪审员对陪审工作进行双语法律专业知识、职业道德、陪审能力、司法调解技能等方面的交流,对典型案例进行讲解分析,必要时实行“走出去”和“请进来”的方式,及时回应各族人民社会司法的需求。打破法院与社会之间诉讼语言的障碍,破解各民族语言交流难题,从而拉动民族语言教育一体化,整合资源、打造工作平台、创新对接方式,科研机关和大专院校要组织“送培到法院”开展培训工作,引导和强化人民陪审员学习热情,重视听、说、译能力训练,全方位、实现民族地区法院工作与民族语言对接。 

  总之,民族地区双语培训教育是构建和谐社会的关键,“双语教育是实现民族平等、公平发展各民族文化和语言的必然选择” [10],同时也是“贯彻党和国家的语言文字政策,落实语言的统一性与多样性,在推广普通话的同时保护少数民族语言与方言的最有效途径。” [11]各级法院双语教育从探索确立到推广应用,不断满足民族群众的需求。在实施人民陪审员制度中完善民族地区双语学习培训工作,将有利推动人民陪审员工作的延伸和发展,各级法院发挥民间语言传播的经验,在宪法和法律制约下促进民族语言平衡,形成双语培训社会化,从而让各族人民的族群情感在语言交流中感受司法公正。 

   【作者简介】高慧君,广西民族大学发展规划处科长,教育学硕士,助理研究员。高济昌,研究员,南宁市西乡塘区人民法院陪审员,南宁市老年科学协会会员。     

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